North American colonists operated with the Native American in peace initially. But as their population grew, tensions arose. Although they were not encouraged to do so, Native Americans still chose sides during the Revolutionary War. The eighteenth century was a troubling time for the native people of North America. Gradually, the population of foreigners grew. Initially, they coexisted in peace. The Natives gave valuable support to their new neighbors, who could not survive otherwise.
Eventually the Europeans desired to occupy more and more of the rich wilderness of the unmolested continent. Before long, the Natives found themselves in the way of imperialist powers set on carving up and claiming the whole world. Life would never be the same. On the east coast, the British were harvesting the abundance of the sea and flexing their naval might.
Inland, the French were getting rich on the fur trade. Both nations wished to expand west. The French were aware of their need to work together with the Natives to learn the weather, wildlife and geography.
Also intermarriage between French trappers and Native women built family bonds. So when the British and French erupted into war , many of the Native tribes sided with the French, who were heavily outnumbered and needed the support. The war lasted from At the end of the war, Great Britain signed the proclamation of , forbidding colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
In theory, this protected the lands of the Natives. In fact, it enraged the colonists who felt westward expansion was something they had fought for and won. The Natives were a conquered people and their territory should be surrendered.
Native Americans are composed of multiple tribes across the continent, each culturally distinct. Each made its own decision on how to navigate the political world of eighteenth century North America. Rather than abandoning the name Sioux altogether, then, many groups simply refer to themselves in multiple ways. Both names are legitimate reflections of the community so named: Periods of cultural rupture or coalescence have also spurred the creation of multiple names.
For example, three of the village-dwelling nations of the Plains—the Mandan , the Hidatsa , and the Arikara —were struck by recurring waves of smallpox, whooping cough, and other illnesses from to The Mandan suffered horrendously; according to reliable eyewitness accounts, their population plummeted from approximately 10,—15, in the s to perhaps in , a crushing loss.
To maintain their viability as a people, Mandan survivors merged with the Hidatsa, their close neighbours and allies; these two tribes were later joined by the Arikara, who had once been their economic and military rivals. By the late 19th century the three nations had legally merged and had taken a new name, the Three Affiliated Tribes. Yet, even as they worked in concert politically, the original groups created separate ethnic enclaves; well into the early 21st century, most members of this tribe referred to themselves as Mandan, Hidatsa, or Arikara or used a hyphenated ethnicity e.
Clearly, the distinct ethnic identities of the three original tribes have survived despite devastating losses, coalescence, and the adoption of a new legal name. Some of these terms are used almost interchangeably, while others indicate relatively specific entities. The term American Indian is often used to refer to the indigenous cultures of the Western Hemisphere in general; its constituent parts were in use from at least the early 16th century.
The word Indian came to be used because Christopher Columbus repeatedly expressed the mistaken belief that he had reached the shores of South Asia.
The word American was soon thereafter appended to Indian to differentiate the indigenous peoples of these regions from those of South Asia. In the s many activists in the United States and Canada rejected the phrase American Indian because it was seen as a misnomer and sometimes carried racist connotations. In these countries Native American soon became the preferred term of reference, although many and perhaps most indigenous individuals living north of the Rio Grande continued to refer to themselves as Indians.
Finding that referent inappropriate, American Arctic peoples initiated the use of their self-names during the s. Those of southern and western Alaska became known as the Yupik , while those of northern and eastern Alaska and all of Canada became known as the Inuit.
In the s Native Americans in Canada began to use the term First Nation as their preferred self-referent. The Canadian government adopted this use but did not furnish a legal definition for it. By the end of the 20th century, native peoples from around the world had begun to encourage others to use tribal self-names when possible i. This preference was recognized by the United Nations when it established the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and passed the Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples In the United States, however, many individuals of indigenous heritage continued to refer to aboriginal Americans, in aggregate, as Indians.
She was State Archaeologist of Iowa from to She coedited Plains Earthlodges: Ethnographic and Archaeological Perspectives and has written scholarly and popular articles on indigenous cultures and histories. Altogether some , Native Americans were forced to move west during the s. The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian.
Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional arts , folk literature , folklore , archaeology , and other sources. Native American history is made additionally complex by the diverse geographic and cultural backgrounds of the peoples involved.
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To re-enable the tools or to convert back to English, click "view original" on the Google Translate toolbar. On Indian Removal Westward expansion brought the United States into contact with numerous Indian tribes, and the admission of new states brought certain Indian lands within the national boundaries. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents , vol.
Native American Self-Names Many ethnic groups have more than one name, and this is as much the case for Native Americans as it is for others. The same safe and trusted content for explorers of all ages. Improved homework resources designed to support a variety of curriculum subjects and standards.
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Tribal Nomenclature: American Indian, Native American, and First Nation. The past years have seen a myriad of terms used as referents to indigenous Americans, including American Indian, Native American, First Nation, Eskimo, Inuit, and Native Alaskan. Some of these terms are used almost interchangeably, while others indicate relatively specific entities.
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The Native Americans, also known as American Indians, are the indigenous peoples and cultures of the North American continent (today's United States and Canada). There were hundreds of tribes throughout the United States when Columbus first arrived. essay how to buy a car Native American History Homework Help shakespeare essay writers can do my homework ipad 2.